CX-01 is a polysaccharide, derived from the class of compounds known as heparinoids, that have long been known to possess biologic and potential therapeutic properties separate from their well-known use as anticoagulants.
This anticoagulant activity and the risk of bleeding, however, has prevented their safe therapeutic use for several life-threatening illnesses for which both pre-clinical and clinical data has suggested the potential for efficacy.
Through a proprietary chemical modification that dramatically reduced anticoagulant activity, Cantex synthesized CX-01 which retains or amplifies important biologic properties of other related polysaccharides:
- Inhibition of HMGB1 activity: HMGB1 is a cytokine that is released when cells are damaged, which transmits its biological signals via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). CX-01 is a potential potent inhibitor of the interaction between HMGB1 and these receptors. HMGB1 has been implicated in autophagy, a mechanism by which cells withstand the effects of chemotherapy, and severe traumatic brain injury, where HMGB1 release has been correlated with worsening neurologic outcomes.
- Disruption of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis: This axis may be involved in the protection of leukemia cells from the killing effects of chemotherapy and in the metastasis and resistance of several cancers.
- Interaction with platelet factor 4: Platelet factor 4 is known to inhibit bone marrow recovery after chemotherapy. CX-01 binds to platelet factor 4 and neutralizes its activity.